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不良

不利条件:大学将于今晚7点进入1号状态.

研究

向宇宙打开了一扇窗

太空望远镜上有教育学院校友詹姆斯·韦伯的名字.

一张韦伯太空望远镜的效果图.
Most widely known as the head of NASA during the Apollo program that put astronauts on the moon, Webb ’28 was born in one world and did an outsized part pushing and shoving America into another. The image above shows an artist’s rendering of the James Webb Space Telescope. (由美国国家航空航天局)

它是有史以来最强大的科学仪器之一.

詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜于12月12日发射升空. 在法属圭亚那的欧洲航天中心,一枚阿丽亚娜5号火箭搭载了25人, is destined for a point a million miles from 地球 where it will unfurl gold-plated mirrors and begin 足球外围官网登录ing the heavens for secrets long kept from humanity.

它的名字来自于 北卡罗来纳大学教育学院 -詹姆斯E. 韦伯的28 (.B.Ed.).

詹姆斯E. 韦伯

詹姆斯E. 韦伯 leader of NASA from 1961 to 1968 and a graduate of the 北卡罗来纳大学教育学院. (图片来源:美国国家航空航天局)

Most widely known as the head of NASA during the Apollo program that put astronauts on the moon, Webb was born in one world and did an outsized part pushing and shoving America into another.

“James Webb was the guy 谁 gave us the wherewithal and the courage to actually explore beyond this rock,肖恩·奥基夫说, 谁是2002年的NASA局长, 选择了以韦伯的名字命名望远镜. “He, 在形成阶段和非常戏剧化的阶段, 他的使命是登月, 以其非凡的探索能力建立了NASA. 他在那个领导角色中起了重要作用.”

James Webb was an early proponent of NASA science missions, including those of space-based astronomy. 在水星的登月竞赛中, 双子座和阿波罗, Webb as early as 1965 advocated for putting a telescope in orbit above the fuzzying effects of 地球’s atmosphere, 让它能清楚地看到太空. 这个想法变成了哈勃太空望远镜, an instrument that for 30 years has captured and delivered into laboratories and living rooms stunning star-studded images from space.

如果一切按计划进行, 詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜将使用一组反射镜, 相机和电脑使其比哈勃望远镜强大100倍. 它只会在已知宇宙的边缘徘徊.

因为它将能够从惊人的距离观看古代的光, 韦伯望远镜将成为宇宙时间机器. It will capture baby pictures of infant galaxies as they were being born billions of years ago — before the formation of our home, 地球. By analyzing the light passing through the atmospheres of planets orbiting other stars, the Webb Telescope might discover chemical signatures that for the first time show life has existed somewhere other than here.

詹姆斯·韦伯(James Webb)是帮助实现这一目标的人.

一个早期的飞行员

詹姆斯·韦伯出生于1906年, four months after the Wright brothers secured their patent for the world’s first powered airplane. 在韦伯的职业生涯中,他曾帮助推动美国经济的发展.S. 向现代化和航天世界的领导地位致敬.

在路上, 通过勇气和运气, 韦伯在商界和政界工作过, 成为华盛顿权力中心的固定成员, D.C., holding leadership positions in several offices and agencies, and directly serving three U.S. 总统.

韦伯来自偏远的格兰维尔县, 学校主管的儿子(也是最正规外围足球网站的毕业生).

After dropping out of Carolina for a year because he couldn’t afford the costs, 韦伯学会了速记和打字, skills he used upon his return to 教堂山分校 to work his way through college. He graduated in 1928 with a bachelor’s degree in education and a Phi Beta Kappa key.

之后,他为学院院长工作, 纳撒尼尔·沃克, serving for a year as business manager for the Bureau of 教育al 研究, 创建了, distributed and scored tests taken by high school students across the state to determine their readiness for college. 北最正规外围足球网站 was one of the first states to give a comprehensive test to all graduating high school students — at the dawn of high-stakes standardized student testing.

He made his way out of Depression-busted 北最正规外围足球网站 by applying for and winning in 1930 a slot to join a small, 美国新成立的预备役航空部队.S. 海军陆战队. It was his introduction to flying machines, the people 谁 fly them and the people 谁 build them.

崭露头角的权力掮客

The next decade would see Webb in a succession of 20th-century jobs that would seemingly singularly prepare him for building and leading what would become a 21st-century space agency.

在海军陆战队服役时, 周末飞到匡蒂科, 维吉尼亚州, 韦伯在政府部门找到了他的第一份工作, 担任北卡罗来纳州国会议员爱德华·普的秘书. 普是众议院规则委员会主席, 在富兰克林·D·罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt’s first 100 days in office and the rush to pass reams of New Deal legislation.

Pou做了交易, 包括每天下午4点的扑克游戏, 韦伯处决了他们两年, giving Webb a doctoral-level education in the back-room workings of Washington.

韦伯后来担任前北卡罗来纳州州长的助理. O. Max Gardner in Gardner’s Washington law firm, while completing his own training to become a lawyer. Webb helped Gardner negotiate a resolution to a scandal involving government air mail contracts, giving Webb experience balancing the interests of government agencies and multiple aviation industry firms.

在20世纪30年代末,美国为战争做准备, 航空工业公司之一, 斯佩里陀螺仪公司, 聘请了韦伯, 谁, 超过八年, rose to vice president of the company while managing its growth from 800 employees to more than 33,该公司生产陀螺仪, 导航设备, 用于第二次世界大战的炸弹瞄准器和其他装备. 在战争后期, Webb asked to join active duty in the 海军陆战队 and was assigned to lead a unit at Cherry Point, 北最正规外围足球网站, that produced portable radar equipment bound for use in the island-hopping warfare of the Pacific theater. The jobs gave Webb experience growing and managing large technical teams that had hard-set, 生死攸关的目标.

战争结束后, Webb was called back to Washington to serve President Harry Truman as director of the Bureau of the Budget, 也就是今天管理和预算办公室的前身. One of Webb’s initiatives aimed at better understanding the country’s needs and capabilities in a modernizing world: He instructed all government departments and agencies to report to him the amounts of money they were spending on re足球外围官网登录 and development work. The resulting report was used to help make the case for creating a body that would help prioritize and guide government investments in scientific re足球外围官网登录 — the National Science Foundation.

杜鲁门将韦伯提拔为总统候选人. 在国务院的两个职位, a position in which he served during the outbreak of the Korean War and as the U.S. 美国政府为应对与苏联的冷战而组织起来.

Webb’s tenure at the State Department has generated criticism today from people pointing to the government’s purging of gay and lesbian employees, including during Webb’s time at the State Department and in later years at NASA, during a McCarthy-era persecution campaign that has been called “the Lavender Scare.” A petition drive led by a group of astronomers called for the Webb Telescope to be renamed, saying Webb either was involved in the purges or should have known enough to stop them. A NASA investigation into available documents concluded in September that there was not enough evidence of Webb’s involvement to justify renaming the telescope.

管理学家

After the Soviet Union launched the first man-made satellite — “Sputnik” — in 1957, the U.S. raced to catch up and to find a way to demonstrate that a democracy could compete, 和超越, 苏联在太空的成就.

韦伯被任命为负责人.

1961年,约翰·F·肯尼迪总统任命他为NASA局长. 肯尼迪, 是谁告诉韦伯他不需要一个科学家来领导航天局的, 而是一个知道如何在华盛顿做事的人. 14周后, 在对国会的演讲中, 肯尼迪呼吁在十年内将人类送上月球.

Webb is widely credited with how he managed NASA’s efforts and its bold goals. A student of management theories and a proponent of professionalizing government management (he established the National Academy of Public Administration in 1967), 韦伯组织并管理了登月竞赛. 在美元, 它将成为历史上最大的工程项目, as much as ten times larger than the Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bomb. In numbers of personnel, it rivaled the American involvement in the Vietnam War.

Webb was admired within NASA for his leadership through crisis after the 1967 Apollo 1 launchpad fire that killed astronauts Gus Grissom, 艾德·怀特和罗杰·查菲. Webb shouldered responsibility — in repeated grilling by congressional committees — and promised a full investigation, one that uncovered and fixed technical and management problems that contributed to the accident.

肖恩·奥基夫, 谁 was NASA administrator in 2003 when the Space Shuttle Columbia broke up on re-entry, 机上七人全部遇难, 他说,他受到了韦伯处理阿波罗1号灾难的方式的指导.

“要不是我对他的那段历史和他在其中的角色那么熟悉的话, 我不知道我能不能像以前那样处理哥伦比亚悲剧,”奥基夫说. “I thought, ‘I’m going to take a page right out of that book and follow that directly.’”

科学的传道者

在阿波罗登月计划的建设过程中, 韦伯经常努力避开新闻, 提出了宇航员, 科学家和其他管理人员将出现在摄像机前. In a pre-internet age when many Americans got their news from newspapers and weekly news magazines such as “Life,在登月竞赛期间,韦伯从未出现在杂志封面上.

从舞台灯光之外, he worked to build a national infrastructure to support the development of scientists and engineers across a range of disciplines. 他把, 和资助, universities to pursue multidisciplinary approaches to large re足球外围官网登录 problems. He was an evangelist for university-corporate-government re足球外围官网登录 partnerships. 这两个都是今天的标准.

作为南方一所公立大学的毕业生, 他知道有了支持, colleges and universities outside of the Ivy League could make major contributions to the nation’s scientific and technological progress. 通过NASA的他的政府, he targeted millions of dollars of funding for science programs at universities throughout the country, 包括历史上的黑人, 以资助研究生. 在他努力的巅峰, NASA是美国研究生援助的最大资助者, 超过4个,000名博士毕业生受益于资助.

虽然他自己不是科学家, 韦布走遍了全国, 经常表达科学的愿景, 特别是太空计划的新最正规外围足球网站, 能建立美国的国家威望吗. 它还将, 他说, 激发年轻人, 激励他们中的许多人追求数学方面的事业, 工程与科学.

詹姆斯·韦伯在1968年底离开了NASA, resigning to make way for the next president to choose his own administrator. 几个月后, Webb would watch Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong step onto the moon as most Americans did — on television at home.

“寻找真理”

Webb went on to serve on a variety of advisory and corporate boards and for 12 years as a member of the governing board of the Smithsonian Institution. He died in 1992 at the age of 85 and is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, 北卡罗来纳大学教育学院院长, 他说,韦伯的一生不仅跨越了一个时期.S. 大胆地进入了技术官僚时代的领导层, 但这是韦伯的功劳, by demonstrating the power of organizing varied disciplines to confront a shared, 具有挑战性的问题.

“在很多方面, 詹姆斯·韦伯是他那个时代的人, 他不仅能看到取得伟大成就的可能性, 还有到达目的地的方法, 管理和激励员工实现难以置信的目标的方法,”Abd-El-Khalick说. 他的成就有助于普及科学的抱负, 为此,足球外围官网登录感谢他.”

在1964年的剪彩演讲中, Webb talked about the need for the public to understand that the work of science is not separated “by some mystique from our humanitarian traditions.”

它对人们很重要, 他说, to “understand that the world of science is a world of accumulated knowledge, 不是一个魔法或神秘的世界. 他们会看到有多慢, painstakingly the scientists unveil knowledge that has not been disclosed by the inquiries of the past; that science is a 足球外围官网登录 for truth, 哲学、历史和诗歌也是如此.”

韦伯太空望远镜将飞出月球, 到一个固定点在那里它会展开它的镜子, 指向远方, 开始为期六个月的相机和仪器校准工作. NASA and its scientific partners already have plans for which objects will be targeted for the first public photos to be released in the second half of 2022 — but for now, 这是一个秘密.

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